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  • 脱出深さ

    escape depth

    [目次:理論]

    入射電子によって励起された二次電子、オージェ電子、X線、および後方散乱電子が試料表面から脱出できる深さ。
    二次電子のエネルギーは最大でも数十eVと小さい。このため、試料の深部で励起された二次電子は数回の散乱でエネルギーを失ってしまうため、試料表面に到達できない。二次電子の最大脱出深さは、ほとんどの金属でおよそ2~5nmである。
    一方、反射電子は入射電子がエネルギーを完全に失う前にたまたま試料表面に到達したものであり、その脱出深さは侵入深さのおよそ半分で、二次電子の脱出深さより2桁程度大きい。またX線は、透過能の大きな電磁波であり、その脱出深さはおよそ1μmある。

    The escape depth means the depth from the upper surface a specimen, from which secondary electrons, Auger electrons, X-rays excited by incident electrons and backscattered electrons can escape.
    The energy of a secondary electron is very small to be a few 10 eV at maximum. Thus, secondary electrons excited at a deep region in the specimen lose their energy only by a few times of scatterings, and they do not reach the specimen surface. The escape depth of the secondary electron is approximately 2 to 5 nm for most metals.
    Backscattered electrons mean electrons which reach the upper specimen surface without losing their energy. The escape depth of the backscattered electron is about one half of the penetration depth of the incident electrons and is two orders of magnitude larger than the escape depth of the secondary electron. The escape depth of X-rays, which are electromagnetic waves with a high transmission power, is as large as approximately 1μm.

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